After all, you are not an expert academic writer. To avoid being penalized and make sure you understand what the thesis discussion chapter is, we have put together this blog post. We will explain what this chapter is and why it is useful. We will also show you a step by step guide on how to write the best possible masters thesis discussion section. This section is often one of the most difficult to write.
In other words, the discussion section of a thesis should be like a very detailed presentation of your findings; a presentation that both explains and interprets the results of your research. In many cases, you need to put your findings in context, taking into consideration previous research.
You could also make some suggestions related to future research. Yes, this sounds like a very complicated thing to do. A discussion in thesis writing is the section that comes after the Results section.
While you may be able to discuss your findings in the Results section in some cases, most often you have to discuss them in a completely separate section. Also, some universities require you to place your recommendations in a separate section, so be sure to check the guidelines of your school. If you want to know why the discussion chapter in thesis is so important and so difficult to writehere are some of the most important benefits of writing this section perfectly:.
However, we are certain you want to know the most important reason why you should dedicate ample time to writing this section. Well, the main reason is the grade you get on your work. We know that you want to learn how to write a discussion chapter in a thesis; and that you want to learn how to write this section as fast as possible. Because writing the discussion section is such a difficult task, you should dedicate a lot of time to it.
And remember, if you need help with the discussion chapter, you can always count on our seasoned academic writers for some professional help. If you were wondering what to discuss in discussion thesis, the steps above already provide all the information you need.
We are also very confident the quick guide above managed to show you how to write discussion section of thesis. All that is left now is to show you how you can get maximum points on your thesis discussion section. You just need a great results and discussion thesis example. Yes, this should be everything you need to get the maximum points. Because an example shows you exactly how to properly structure your writing.
It shows you how each paragraph should look like and what it should contain. You probably already know that following a great example is much easier than trying to do something all by yourself. You need a great example.
We know the first thing you will try to do is go online and search for this on Google. You will get plenty of results, of course. And of course, you are unable to use any of the text because that would constitute plagiarism.This format is quite similar to the IMRAD structure that you have likely already been using for papers in your field. Generally, dissertations and theses are separated into the following sections or chapters :. The introduction typically contains an overview of work that others in the field have completed preceding your thesis and tells the reader, broadly, what your work will add to the field.
Major texts in the field as well as specific work that was important to your thesis should be referenced here as part of building the context for the document that follows. Additionally, you will establish the importance of your work to the field and, perhaps, beyond the field as well.
In some fields, the body of the dissertation is essentially three papers on a similar topic or that use a similar technique. Each of those chapters will have its own introduction, the following three sections, and a conclusion. These chapters will be bracketed by the larger introduction and conclusion that ties them together.
For fields that do not take this approach, the following sections are typical of the chapters that make up the body of the dissertation or the sections of the thesis. This section establishes how the data or new insight that follows was gathered. If the approach is theoretical, it is established and explained here.
If following sections depend upon specialty instruments, these should be described here. If data were collected, the methods used should be documented in this section. If that data were then processed or analyzed, the methods for that processing should also be described here. In some fields, the following two section results and discussion will be combined into one section.
In other fields, these steps must be kept clearly separated. If you are not sure which is usually done in your field, ask your advisor. In this section, you tell your reader what results were obtained using your methods. If the approach is theoretical, use this section to explore the results of the application of the theory.
If the approach was experimental, this is the section that contains the results of the experiments. This is the section of the thesis in which you explain the implications of the data for the reader. In short, what is meaningful about the results of your experiment or application of a new theoretical approach?
Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Work. All theses and dissertations will close with a consideration of the broader meaning of the work that preceded it and some recommendations for the future directions other scientists could take given what the work has uncovered. In some disciplines, the conclusions and recommendations may be presented separately.
What additional information should be included in the appendices will vary significantly by project. Some things that previous authors have included are lists of acronyms, lists of commonly used symbols, additional images, and additional data. Skip Side Navigation. Specialized Genres. Writing a Scientific Thesis.Suggestions for writing science well abound -- we have a couple of sources cited in the Readings.
What these sources have in common are certain approaches to writing with which not all scientists readily agree. First is that science is a "narrative". Second is that scientific prose should be clear, concise, and comprehensible the 3 Cs -- some add a fourth: compelling.
Is science a narrative? Let's start with science as an activity. Most would agree that we experience science while we are conducting it as a kind of story: strings of actions have consequences to which people react some more.
When a scientist looks back on a project and talks about it, it usually has this narrative form because we humans are largely driven by narrative structure okay, this is my personal belief based on years of studying language: sentence grammar seems to be a cognitively hard-wired system for communicating strings of actions and consequences.
But is writing a science paper like writing a narrative? At this point, we really must say "NO". Because all the stylistic decisions that make narrative compelling are exactly the decisions that would get a paper rejected immediately!
Can you imagine the editors of Nature happily passing the following abstract to reviewers It was a dark and stormy day outside, but the lab was alight with the phosphorescent glow of particles XYZ, twinkly merrily from the mashed brains on the slide like tiny LED bulbs on the family Christmas tree.
Through weary hours spent mincing maternal mouse hyppocampi, tortured by months of no-glow-at-all, the lab had finally triumphed!
Cool as the plate we'd used to freeze the rats toes, our long hours of drinking alone in the dark, waiting for the hopped-up mamas to do their crazy dance, had rewarded us with positive images of brains gone wild as girls on Spring Break.
How to write a discussion section
Clearly, scientific prose is not a narrative. So, why the frequent call for writing more narratively? This editorial suggests the reason nicely:. Before you even begin, ask yourself the question, "Why should anyone care to read past the title of my paper? Next comes the most important paragraph of the whole paper: the first one. Even if it is a work of expositional genius, few among a broad audience are likely to read beyond it.
So it is vital that this paragraph tells the central story of the paper, and makes clear why this story deserves to be told. Don't launch into technical details, or merely list what you did.
Set the scene, explain the background — that will give the non-specialist reader a context in which to understand the significance of the work, but fellow specialists will also appreciate your telling them what you consider to be the relevant questions in the field. Editorial, Elements of StyleNature Physics. Aah -- it isn't that scientific prose is a species of narrative, then, but that readers comprehend better when story elements are used to convey the message.
In the case of reporting research, the "story" elements provide the " This is not necessarily the story of how the scientist experienced the work; it is the story of how the reader can best experience the research. Perhaps this is why the second person you, you're, etc is not used at all in science -- the research is not about the reader and only quietly about the writer. Scientific prose should be clear, concise, comprehensible and perhaps, compelling.
The 3 Cs is the antidote to edict 1 that scientific prose should be a narrative construction. Yes, taking advantage of narrative structure will help the reader understand the research, but it is the ideas themselves that have to be written clearly, concisely, and comprehensibly. Here is where " The Science of Scientific Writing " comes in, the main points of which are neatly summarized in " How to Write a Thesis ":. Follow a grammatical subject with its verb, as soon as possible.
Place the person or thing whose story is being told at the beginning of a sentence in the topic position. Make clear the action of every clause or sentence in its verb. Provide context for your reader before asking him or her to consider anything new. Match the emphasis conveyed by the substance with the emphasis anticipated by the reader from the structure.The discussion section is a very important part of your dissertation or research paper.
It is also one of the most difficult parts to write, and sometimes the longest. Yet, many students write it in a rushed manner. Eager to reach the finishing line, they miss the opportunity to fully explore their findings and put them in the context of other research in the field.
The first rule that applies to writing your discussion is therefore to allow enough time to give it the credit that it deserve. Your discussion section allows you to take a fresh perspective on your findings, so you can dig deep and provide new and original ideas from your research.
Here are some of the common mistakes people make when writing their discussion section:. To avoid these mistakes, bear in mind that in your discussion section you are expected to interpret and explain your results, link them to other studies, answer your research question s and evaluate your study.
You can consider following this sequence: 1 refer to your research question; 2 provide the answer; 3 justify it with relevant results; 4 link your work to the work of others. Your discussion section is a review of your findings, and it should show you really understand them. It is generally written in the present tense, and can have subheadings to make it easier to read.
There are some similarities between the terms discussion and conclusion in academic writing. These two terms usually represent two separate concepts. While you might have noticed some similarities between the two, they both generally have a different purpose. The discussion is a detailed presentation of your findings and provides scientific back-up for your arguments.
It explains your findings and interprets them in context of previous work, as well as provides some suggestions for future research. The conclusion, on the other hand, is generally brief and provides just the main points of your dissertation ; i.
It can be seen as a summary of your discussion and tells the reader why your research matters. For a more thorough description of the term conclusion as it applies to academic writing, you can refer to this post. If you decide to combine these two concepts, it is important that you cover all of your required topics in a systematic way.
At all times, cultivate creative thinking and make sure you are telling the reader a coherent narrative that is hopefully making them excited about your results. Here are some of the common mistakes people make when writing their discussion section: Simply repeating their results section, with little reference to existing literature.Bibliography of guides.
Peer review. Lab reports. When I was in your shoes and preparing my first paper, I consulted a book on how to write. I found there a sentence encouraging the reader to do the following:. I had a pretty good idea what was wrong with the sentence but, at the time I couldn't figure out how to revise it, and the author didn't tell me.
How To Write A Thesis Discussion Chapter
From: How to write and Illustrate a Scientific Paper 2nd ed. Bjorn Gustavii. No one knows how to write a scientific paper without practice and help. Many science students practice this skill when they are asked to write lab reports. This guide will describe some best practices for scientific writing and give you some additional sources to explore.
If you have read scientific papers, you will have noticed that a standard format is frequently used. This format allows a researcher to present information clearly and concisely.
Scientists communicate new ideas by publishing their research in a specialized format called the journal article. This form usually includes 6 parts:. For more information, please Click here. Software VPN is not available for guests, so they may not have access to some content when connecting from off-campus.
Hours Accessibility Accounts Giving. Writing a Scientific Paper: Writing a lab report Discussion of how to understand and write different sections of a scientific paper. I found there a sentence encouraging the reader to do the following: " After standing in boiling water for an hour, examine the contents of the flask. Scientific Communication If you have read scientific papers, you will have noticed that a standard format is frequently used.
This form usually includes 6 parts: 1 abstract a summary of the article 2 introduction a brief review of why they chose this experiment 3 materials and methods what organisms and equipment were used 4 results what was found 5 discussion what it means 6 references the list of journal articles and books that the scientist referred to in the paper. Biology Librarian. John Sisson. Email Me. Schedule Appointment.
Contact: Science Library jsisson uci. Subjects: Biological Sciences.Published on March 21, by Shona McCombes. Revised on October 13, The discussion chapter is where you delve into the meaning, importance and relevance of your results.
Academic Phrases for Writing Results & Discussion Sections of a Research Paper
It should focus on explaining and evaluating what you found, showing how it relates to your literature review and research questionsand making an argument in support of your overall conclusion. There are many different ways to write this section, but you can focus your discussion around four key elements:. There is often overlap between the discussion and conclusion, and in some dissertations these two sections are included in a single chapter.
Occasionally, the results and discussion will be combined into one chapter.
Table of contents Summarize your key findings Give your interpretations Discuss the implications Acknowledge the limitations State your recommendations What to leave out of the discussion Checklist Frequently asked questions about the discussion.
This should be no more than one paragraph. The form of your interpretations will depend on the type of research, but some typical approaches to interpreting the data include:. You can organize your discussion around key themes, hypotheses or research questions, following the same structure as your results section.
You can also begin by highlighting the most significant or unexpected results. As well as giving your own interpretations, make sure to relate your results back to the scholarly work that you surveyed in the literature review. The discussion should show how your findings fit with existing knowledge, what new insights they contribute, and what consequences they have for theory or practice.
Ask yourself these questions:. Your overall aim is to show the reader exactly what your research has contributed and why they should care. Even the best research has some limitations, and acknowledging these is important to demonstrate your credibility. Limitations might be due to your overall research design, specific methodological choicesor unanticipated obstacles that emerged during the research process.
You should only mention limitations that are directly relevant to your research objectivesand evaluate how much impact they had on achieving the aims of the research. For example, if your sample size was small or limited to a specific group of people, note that this limits its generalizability. If you encountered problems when gathering or analyzing data, explain how these influenced the results. If there are potential confounding variables that you were unable to control, acknowledge the effect these may have had.
After noting the limitations, you can reiterate why the results are nonetheless valid for the purpose of answering your research questions.
Based on the discussion of your results, you can make recommendations for practical implementation or further research. Sometimes the recommendations are saved for the conclusion. Suggestions for further research can lead directly from the limitations. There are a few common mistakes to avoid when writing the discussion section of your dissertation.
You've written a great discussion section. Use the other checklists to further improve your thesis or dissertation. In the discussionyou explore the meaning and relevance of your research resultsexplaining how they fit with existing research and theory. The results chapter or section simply and objectively reports what you found, without speculating on why you found these results. The discussion interprets the meaning of the results, puts them in context, and explains why they matter.
In qualitative researchresults and discussion are sometimes combined. In a thesis or dissertation, the discussion is an in-depth exploration of the results, going into detail about the meaning of your findings and citing relevant sources to put them in context. The conclusion is more shorter and more general: it concisely answers your main research question and makes recommendations based on your overall findings. Hi, thanks for all the help, recently came across this page and it's amazing.
It's fine if there are no studies exactly the same as yours — most research aims to address a gap and contribute something unique. You might still want to mention studies that explored questions related to yours, that collected similar data from different populations, or that looked at different aspects of the same topic; alternatively, you might discuss how well your data fits with theories or models on the topic.The results and discussion sections are one of the challenging sections to write.
It is important to plan this section carefully as it may contain a large amount of scientific data that needs to be presented in a clear and concise fashion. The purpose of a Results section is to present the key results of your research.
Results and discussions can either be combined into one section or organized as separate sections depending on the requirements of the journal to which you are submitting your research paper.
Use subsections and subheadings to improve readability and clarity. Number all tables and figures with descriptive titles. Present your results as figures and tables and point the reader to relevant items while discussing the results. This section should highlight significant or interesting findings along with P values for statistical tests. Be sure to include negative results and highlight potential limitations of the paper.
This often makes up for a great discussion section, so do not be afraid to highlight them. The results and discussion section of your research paper should include the following:. It performs well, giving good results. This yields increasingly good results on data. However, even better results are achieved when using our algorithm. Slightly superior results are achieved with our algorithm.
The result is equal to or better than a result that is currently accepted. Comparison with prior studies: The results demonstrated in this chapter match state of the art methods.
Here we compare the results of the proposed method with those of the traditional methods. An abstract is a self-contained and short synopsis that describes a larger work. The abstract…. Thanks for making it!How to write Discussion, Conclusion \u0026 References of a Thesis? - Lec.101 Part 4 - Dr. Muhammad Naveed
Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Related Posts. Academic Phrases for Writing Abstract Section of a Research Paper An abstract is a self-contained and short synopsis that describes a larger work.
This section allows you to thank all…. Awesome vocab given, I am really thankful. Reply to this message. Thank you very much! Bless your soul!
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